Arnita D1), Henna Rya Sunoko2)

ABSTRACT

Background: The increased level of lead in human’s blood is toxic. It can decrease the intelligence and physical growth in children.
Methods: A cross sectional study was done to explore the correlations of lead level in the environment (air and water) with lead level in the blood of children ages 5-10 years. The research was done in Gebangsari and Sekaran, Semarang; and also in Moro Demak, Demak. The level of lead in the air was measured with “Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer”, using the samples of air collected by ‘High Volume Sampler’. The level of lead in the blood was measured with “Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer”, the blood was taken from peripheral vena.
Results: The relationship between the lead level in air with blood lead level of the children showed a non-significant result (p>0,05). The air lead level in Gebangsari was higher than in Moro Demak and Sekaran, but the blood lead level in Gebangsari was lower than in Moro Demak and Sekaran. The water lead level was still under the limitation value. The occurrence of a significant relationship between the educational level of their parents and the blood lead level, suggested that blood lead level was influenced by educational level of their parents.
Conclusion: High blood lead level could be happened if residing in the area with high risk to contamination of lead. The child blood lead level could be influenced by educational level of their parents.

Key Words: The lead level in the air, Water, Blood, 5-10 years old children

ABSTRAK

Latar belakang: Peningkatan kadar timbal dalam darah manusia mengakibatkan efek toksik. Timbal dapat menurunkan tingkat kecerdasan, pertumbuhan dan perkembangan pada anak-anak.
Metode: Penelitian cross sectional dilakukan untuk mencari hubungan antara kadar timbal udara dan timbal air dengan kadar timbal darah anak usia 5-10 tahun. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Kelurahan Gebangsari dan Sekaran, Kota Semarang, serta di Kelurahan Moro Demak, Kabupaten Demak. Timbal-udara diukur menggunakan alat Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer dengan sampel udara yang dikumpulkan melalui High Volume Sampler. Timbal-darah diukur dengan menggunakan alat Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) dengan sampel darah vena.
Hasil: Tidak terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara kadar timbal udara dengan kadar timbal darah anak usia 5-10 tahun (p>0,05). Kadar timbal udara di Gebangsari lebih tinggi daripada di Moro Demak dan Sekaran. Kadar timbal darah anak di Gebangsari lebih rendah daripada di Moro Demak dan Sekaran. Kadar timbal air di ketiga daerah masih di bawah nilai ambang. Terdapat hubungan yang bermakna (p<0,05) antara tingkat pendidikan orang tua dengan kadar timbal darah anak usia 5-10 tahun di kelurahan Moro Demak dan Gebangsari, Moro Demak dan Sekaran.
Kesimpulan: Pada penelitian ini tidak terdapat hubungan antara kadar timbal lingkungan dengan kadar timbal darah pada anak usia 5-10 tahun. Kadar timbal darah anak juga dipengaruhi oleh tingkat pendidikan orang tua.

Kata Kunci: Paparan timbal lingkungan, Kadar timbal darah, Anak 5-10 tahun

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